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Wall Systems

Most buildings erected today are designed with some degree of aesthetic appeal, whether a contemporary office or a more traditional warehouse located in a heavy industrial area. Durable, functional and economical structures are still very important, but the customers are demanding more. They want their buildings to be aesthetically appealing as well.

It has become a must to offer a striking design and visual appeal to sell any types or style of building in today's market. Descriptive words such as, eye-catching, modern, attractive, elegant, and beautiful, appeal to the prospective customer. The increasing trend toward a more sophisticated design is one of the greatest advantages in the metal building system.

While the roof provides overhead protection from the weather, and steel framing provides the supporting framework, neither contributes as much to exterior appeal as the wall system.

Types of Walls

The types of wall materials available today are practically unlimited. They can range from wood, brick and block, tilt up panels to metal panels. From the viewpoint of building construction, walls are divided into two major groups: load-bearing wall construction and skeleton-frame construction.

Load-Bearing Wall Construction

Load-bearing wall construction has been the method of structural design employed since the earliest days of the Roman Empire. The walls support their own weight plus the remaining load of the building.

In this method, roof beams and bar joists rest upon the exterior walls, which, in turn, transmit the loads to the foundations. It is evident that walls must be of sufficient strength to carry resultant loads as well as their own weight. Consequently, as height of buildings increase the required thickness of walls and the weights brought upon the foundations become excessive and uneconomical. And although this type of wall construction is still in use today, a more modern and functional system has been introduced, called the curtain wall and frame system.

Curtain Wall and Frame System

Curtain wall and frame construction is a popular way to build for commercial occupants. Not only can it be more economical, but also the unlimited selection of exterior materials provides superior wall systems that are difficult to surpass. Lighter weight and more economical walls offer better insulating efficiency as well. Greater flexibility in material and color selection is available. And, in most instances, curtain walls are faster and easier to erect.

Wall Systems

Wall panels play an important role in the visual aesthetics of a building. Although appearance is very important, it is usually not the only objective. Performance and budgetary constraints must also be important considerations.

If the wall is to be insulated, standard white vinyl blanket insulation in thickness of 3", 4", and 6" is often used. It is field installed by sandwiching the roll insulation between the girts and the covering panels. The tabs of adjoining insulation rolls are folded and stapled to assure good vapor barrier.

Wall Accessories

Many of our wall systems are available with the following wall accessories:

Walk Doors

Overhead Door Framed Openings

Aluminum Horizontal Slide Windows

Aluminum Narrow Lite Accent Windows

Wall Louvers

Slide Doors

Light Transmitting Wall Panels (roof or wall lights)

Liner Panels

PBR Panel

Description: This panel is used both for the roof and sidewalls; the "PBR" Panel's deep ribs create an even-shadowed appearance. The area between the major ribs is reinforced with minor ribs. The "PBR" panel is one of the most economical wall covering systems.

Gauge: 29, 26, 24 and 22.

Length: 45' maximum is standard but longer lengths available by special request.

Fasteners: Standard coated, zinc- aluminum cast head, or stainless steel head screw.

Dimensions: 36" coverage x 1 1/4" deep.

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Commercial - Industrial Series.

Usage: Roof, wall, liner, mansard, and soffit panel applications.

"PBR" Panel Features and Benefits:

36" Coverage for ease of erection.

Manufactured at all plants for low freight to any location.

Start installation at either end for flexible erection.

Economical profile that is cost effective.

Finish Warranty - 20-year life when used with long life fasteners.

The panel provides diaphragm capabilities and girt stability in metal building construction.

Profile wall lights are available for the "PBR" Panel.

The panel can be reverse rolled putting the paint finish on the under side for installation as a wall panel.

PBA Panel

Description: The Architectural "PBA" Panel for sidewalls produces a decorative smooth shadow line creating a distinctive architectural effect with semi-concealed fasteners. Ribs are 1 1/8" deep and major corrugations spaced 12" on center. The net coverage of panel is 3'-0".

Gauge: 26 and 24.

Lengths: Maximum recommended 45' 0". Longer lengths available on special order.

Fasteners: Various, depending on application.

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Commercial - Industrial Series.

Dimensions: 36" wide by 1 1/8" deep.

Usage: Wall panel, liner panel, soffit panel, mansard panel face, and back sheet.

Limitations: Installation may be difficult with very thick insulation.

"PBA" Panel Features and Benefits:

Semi-concealed fastener panel for attractive architectural application.

The striations reduce oil canning, textured appearance.

Available in the standard Dura-20®, which is a silicone polyester color offered with a standard 20-year warranty.

Single continuous panel to sill until panel exceeds 40'-0 length for attractive application with no end laps, and ease of installation.

Royal K-70® premium finish optional for a finish with 20-year warranty, ultimate resistance to color change and chalk.

Embossed texture available, embossing the metal reduces glare and the potential for oil canning.

Fire rating, the panel carries a UL "Class A" fire rating.

PBU Panel

Description: This utility panel with ribs 6" on centers is especially useful for liners, partitions, soffits, etc., because of its shallower 3/4" deep ribs and relative ease of installation.

Gauge: 29, 26, 24, and 22.

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Commercial Industrial Series (29, 24, and 22 Ga. available in Polar White and Galvalume Plus®).

Lengths: Maximum recommended 40' 0". Longer lengths available on special order.

Usage: Wall panel, liner panel, soffit panel, mansard panel face, and back sheet.

"PBU" Panel Features and Benefits:

Dura-20® has 20-year warranty.

Reverse rolled profile that places color on the reverse side of the panel yields a flat profile appearance with fasteners recessed in flutes.

Fire rating, the panel carries a UL "Class A" fire rating.

Single continuous panel eave to sill until panel exceeds 40'-0" length causing an attractive appearance with no end laps, and ease of installation.

Royal K-70® optional finish that offers the premium paint finish with 20-year warranty, ultimate resistance to color changes and chalks.

Face fastener that yields diaphragm capabilities and girt stability.

Embossed texture optional, embossing the metal reduces glare and the potential for oil canning.

Optional Perforated condition for ventilation or acoustical applications.

NuWall™

Description: NuWall™ combines the ease of installation in both new and retrofit applications with a pleasing aesthetic appeal. The shadow lines created with the NuWall™ panel will enhance any structure's appearance. Installation of panels is performed completely outside with no disruption of the workplace on the inside.

Gauge: 22, 24, and 26 (All gauges have a minimum quantity required)

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Architectural Series.

Lengths: Recommended 40'-0" maximum.

Fasteners: Concealed fastening system. The panel is attached to the structure with self-drilling fasteners on one side of the panel only. No clips are required. The adjoining panel simply snaps into the previous panel, concealing the fasteners from view.

Dimensions: 12" wide 1" high.

Usage: NuWall™ is ideal for both new and retrofit applications. In retrofit applications, the NuWall™ panel can be installed over an existing "PBR" or "M" panel wall. This saves both labor and material. Other panel profiles and other forms of construction may require the use of sub-girts.

Flat Panels - Artisan Series

Description: The simplicity of the Artisan Series panel is its best design feature. Uniform dimensions and clean appearance allow the designer to plan modules, eliminate complicated pieces, and follow wall curvatures.

Gauge: 26, 24, and 22 (26 and 22 Ga. may require minimum quantity).

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Polar White (Smooth or Embossed Texture with or without stiffener breaks), Commercial - Industrial Series.

Lengths: Maximum recommended 20'-0" Rules of Thumb for Artisan Panel Lengths:

Up to 4'-0" Long Use L12, L10, or L8

4'-0" to 10'-0" Long Use L8 Only

Fasteners: Concealed fastening system Artisan Series panels use the Positive fastening method and are attached directly to the substructure. The fastener is concealed behind the flush face.

Dimensions: 8", 10", and 12" wide by 1" high.

Usage: The Artisan panels are used for soffits and interior liners.

Artisan Series Limitations:

The panel provides no diaphragm action due to the concealed fastener design. Installation over thick or reinforced blanket insulation may induce oil canning. The product is designed for application over rigid framing.

The product is susceptible to oil canning and should be sold in the heaviest gauge, embossed and with grooves when possible.

Not recommended for external wall application.

Artisan Series Features and Benefits:

Factory applied sidelap sealant for watertight connection.

The panel sidelap has passed tests for air infiltration and water penetration per ASTM E283 and E331 test procedures.

The panels qualify for 1, 1 1/2, and 2 hour UL fire ratings when installed under certain composite construction methods. This provides possible lower insurance costs, and meets code requirements.

Perforation available for ventilation or acoustical applications.

The panel is available in the rock wall option, which is an aggregate coating for aesthetic applications.

Structural integrity due to panel depth and gauge availability, large spanning conditions are available.

Finish warranties available, a 20-year warranty is available for Galvalume Plus® and a 20-year warranty is available for Royal K-70®.

ShadowRib™

Description: ShadowRib™ combines aesthetics, economics, and function to bring definition to metal structures. ShadowRib™ is a proven performer and a versatile tool to the designer.

Gauge: 24 and 22 (22 Ga. minimum quantity may be required).

Finish: Galvalume Plus® and Architectural Series.

Lengths: Maximum recommended 40'-0".

Fasteners: Concealed fastening system. Panels may be secured to the structure from outside the building with the ShadowRib™ concealed clip, or from inside the building with an expansion fastener. Both are positive fastening methods that create secure interlock between panel and structure.

Dimensions: 16" wide by 3" high.

Usage: The ShadowRib™ panel can be used for walls, fascias, and equipment screens. Apply the panel over light gauge framing, purlins, girts, structural steel, and joists. In many instances, the panel can span from floor to ceiling without interior support, making it ready to apply a variety of insulation methods into the 3" cavity.

Exclusively from Insulated Panel Systems is the "SSP" roof panel. The "SSP" panels are ideal for temperature controlled roof systems and can be snapped together with IPS's patented Versalok™ sidelaps then mechanically seamed. IPS's "EWP" Wall Panels, "ESP" Wall Panels, and the "IPP" Partition Panel system are all thermally efficient, affordable, aesthetically pleasing products. All of the wall panels are available with our Rockwall™ system. The Rockwall™ process bonds real stone aggregate to steel panels, combining the advantages of steel with the durability and beauty of stone aggregate.

Insulated EWP Wall Panel

Description: "EWP" panels offer contemporary styling in an easily installed panel that is manufactured in the thickness of 2" or 4". "EWP" uses a joint with concealed fasteners. The ribbed profile gives the building a strong vertical accent that is ideal for metal building applications. Both exterior and interior metal skins have stucco embossed pre-painted finish. The panel is designed to module on 36" width.

Gauge: 22, 24, and 26 (22 Ga. minimum order required).

Finish: Both faces are stucco embossed, Rockwall™ Stone-Coated, silicone polyester, and fluorocarbon polymer.

Lengths: Max 48'-0".

Fasteners: Concealed with clips at side joints.

Dimensions: Width: 36"; Thickness: 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4".

Usage: Contemporary look and vertical linear profile allow maximum use of shadows and flat surfaces to create a custom wall effect.

Limitations: Load/span tables for wind loads are available upon request.

Insulated "EWP" Features and Benefits:

Foam thickness of 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4" that provides excellent insulating properties providing R-values from 17.2 to 30.6.

Complete Load/Span tables available allowing designer to make proper use of panel span capabilities.

Excellent test results for air leakage and water penetration through panel joint that confirms weather tightness in compliance with specifications.

Good Surface burning characteristics, which comply with model building codes for, foam plastics.

Concealed fasteners with clips, which provides a contemporary alternative to exposed fasteners.

Vertical indented ribs at 6" centers which utilizes maximum use of shadows and flat surfaces for strong vertical accents.

Insulated ESP Wall Panel

Description: This architecturally pleasing panel is ideal for commercial applications. Low profile exterior structure and offset lap joint with concealed fasteners give "ESP" panels an attractive appearance for vertical applications. The panel is designed to module on 36" width.

Gauge: 22, 24, and 26 (22 Ga. minimum order required).

Finish: Surfaces are stucco embossed, Rockwall™ Stone-Coated, silicone polyester, and fluorocarbon polymer.

Lengths: Max 48'-0".

Fasteners: Concealed with clips at side joints.

Dimensions: Width: 36"; Thickness: 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4".

Usage: "ESP" is an architecturally pleasing economical insulated wall system.

Limitations: Load/span tables for wind loads are available upon request.

Insulated "ESP" Features and Benefits:

Foam thickness of 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4" for excellent insulating properties providing R-values from 17.2 to 30.6.

Complete Load/Span tables available, allows designer to make proper use of panel span capabilities.

Excellent test results for air leakage and water penetration through panel joint confirming weather tightness in compliance with specifications.

Good Surface burning characteristics comply with model building codes for foam plastics.

Concealed fasteners with clips provide a contemporary alternative to exposed fasteners.

Lightly striated design gives a flat appearance for most architectural and commercial applications.

Insulated IPP Liner Panel

Description: Attractive flat embossed profile produced in thickness of 2" to 4". "IPP" utilizes a concealed fastener joint that retains the high thermal properties built into all IPS insulated panels. Easy to maintain finishes that adds to the appearance of your building. It is designed to module on 36" centers and has an USDA approved finish as a standard coating.

Gauge: 22, 24, and 26 both faces (22 Ga. minimum order required).

Finish: Both faces are stucco embossed, Rockwall™ Stone-Coated, Dura-20®, and Royal K- 70®.

Lengths: Max 48'-0".

Fasteners: Concealed with clips. Concealed fastener installation hardware includes steel clips and screws.

Dimensions: 36" Wide by 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4" thick.

Usage: Interior partitions and ceilings - Can also be used as an exterior wall panel.

Limitations: Butyl side-joint sealant is field installed.

Insulated "IPP" Features and Benefits

Foam thickness of 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4" for excellent insulating properties providing R-values from 17.2 to 30.6.

Complete Load/Span tables available, allows designer to make proper use of panel span capabilities.

Excellent test results for air leakage and water penetration through panel joint confirming weather tightness in compliance with specifications.

Good surface burning characteristics complying with model building codes for foam plastics.

Concealed fasteners with clips provide a contemporary alternative to exposed fasteners.

Use of symmetrical mesa embossed surfaces on both sides creates uniformity in finish and color throughout the building's interior.

48'-0" maximum length which allows for continuous uninterrupted partition walls capable of withstanding most interior design loads (5 psf).

Instant interior partition that is energy efficient.

Offset lap joint that retains high thermal properties.

Insulated Rockwall™ Stone-Coated TecFoam Walls

Description: All of the insulated wall panels are available with the Rockwall™ Finish system. Rockwall™ gives you the advantage of steel wall panel construction with the durable beauty of stone aggregate. The Rockwall™ process bonds real stone aggregate to steel panels with a super adhesive system. A clear sealer gives the finished panel a crisp glazed appearance.

Gauges: 24 and 26.

Finishes: Sand Rock, and Granite Rock.

Lengths: Max 20' Fasteners: Concealed with clips.

Dimensions: Width: 36"; Thickness: 2"- 4".

Usage: The Rockwall™ finish is available on all panel profiles:

"RWP" Roof/Wall Panel

"EWP" Wall Panel

"ESP" Wall Panel

"IPP" Partition Panel

Limitations: For wall applications only.

IPS Rockwall™ Features and Benefits:

Foam thickness of 2", 2 1/2", 3", and 4" for excellent insulating properties providing R-values from 17.2 to 30.6.

Complete Load/Span tables available, allows designer to make proper use of panel span capabilities.

Excellent test results for air leakage and water penetration through panel joint confirming weather tightness in compliance with specifications.

Good Surface burning characteristics that comply with model building codes for foam plastics.

Concealed fasteners with clips provide a contemporary alternative to exposed fasteners.

Concrete Wall Systems

General Information

Tilt-up wall systems include load-bearing panels, non-load-bearing panels and wainscot panels.

Precast wall systems may be load-bearing or non-load-bearing and include flat panels, flat panels with spandrel beams, single-tee panels, double-tee panels, and wainscot panels.

Components used for each wall system include panels, joints, flashing and connections.

The buildings illustrated are typical of many being constructed in modern industrial parks. They demonstrate the use of precast flat wall panels with spandrel beams, tilt-up wall panels and precast tee panels.

Tilt-Up Wall Components

Tilt-up wall components can be defined as those built by the general contractor on the job-site using temporary casting facilities. They are usually wide, flat panels that span from grade to roof. The walls may be load-bearing or non-load-bearing and may act as shear walls to resist wind and seismic forces.

Common thicknesses of tilt-up concrete walls are 5 1/2", 6", 7 1/2", and 8". Typically panels are 15, 20, 25, or 30 feet wide. Panel heights are determined by building heights and frequently range up to 40 feet.

Concrete

Concrete for tilt-up walls is often designed to have a minimum ultimate strength of 3,000 psi at 28 days. It should be with a slump (the correct mixture of water and concrete to obtain a desired strength) of 3 to 4 inches.

Curing

Curing of job-built panels is limited to the use of curing agents and membranes.

The panel designer furnishes reinforcing steel specifications. Reinforcing is placed at mid-depth of panel. The amount of reinforcing that is required for temperature and shrinkage is usually adequate for normal panel loading. Extra reinforcing is installed around openings and at lifting inserts.

Inserts

Inserts are installed in panels, prior to pouring concrete, as necessary for the lifting operation and attachment to structure. Number and location of lifting inserts may be determined by the manufacturers of these items or by the contractor in association with a structural engineer.

Tilt-Up Construction Planning

Along with the decision to use tilt-up construction, the construction procedure should be established. Planning should involve everyone who will be associated with placing the walls. This includes those responsible for forming, placing concrete and reinforcing steel, finishing, erecting wall panels and erecting structural steel. The planning should consider the layout of the site and building and proper access should be provided. Particular attention should be given to providing operating room for concrete trucks and erecting cranes.

The entire construction procedure should be organized to proceed in an orderly sequence. During space-planning of the job site, it is often helpful to use scaled model cutouts of wall panels and equipment on a print of the building floor plan.

Tilt-Up walls are the most commonly used Concrete Wall System in the erection of metal building projects

Precast Wall Components

A subcontractor usually supplies precast wall components. They are manufactured off-site using permanent casting facilities and transported to the job-site. Several precast wall systems are flat panels, flat panels combined with spandrel beams, double-tee or single-tee panels and wainscot panels.

Some precast wall systems are designed to be load-bearing. With appropriate design, economy may be achieved by replacing the perimeter steel framing with the precast wall system.

Panel Sizes

Thickness and configuration determine precast products available in the contractor's area. Typical flat panels are 4 to 6 inches thick and are 4, 5, 6, 8, or 10 feet in width. Typical flange thickness of tees range from 2 to 3 inches and flange widths are 4, 6, 8, or 10 feet in width. Length of all wall components is determined by building heights and precaster's capability.

Concrete

Concrete for walls is usually a high strength, typically 4,000 to 6,000 psi. Vibration of casting beds increases concrete density.

Curing

Curing of precast panels can be accomplished by means of curing agents and membranes. However, steam curing is widely used and is most effective.

Reinforcement

The type of reinforcing steel used varies widely with the precaster. Pre-stressing is usually provided. Pre-stress is the process to introduce internal stresses into (as a structural beam) to counteract the stresses that will result from applied load (as in incorporating cables under tension in concrete).

Inserts

Inserts or other lifting devices are used to lift panels from lifting beds. Top edge inserts are often used to erect panels. Type of inserts and methods of lifting panels will vary among different precasters.

The details shown apply equally to precast panels as well as tilt-up panels. Use of precast wall panels often requires the utilization of a precast concrete subcontractor in the dealer's area. The type of wall panels or sections used on a project depends on the types commonly manufactured and supplied by the local subcontractor. Double-tees, single-tees, or flat panels may not be available in all areas.

Erecting precast panels is done after the primary structure has been erected, which is just opposite of the tilt-up procedure.

Performance Characteristics of Tilt-Up and Precast Wall Systems

The performance characteristics of precast and tilt-up concrete wall systems are outstanding in many important areas.

Economic Considerations

The cost of concrete wall systems is low in comparison to masonry walls of similar or equal performance.

In many cases, tilt-up wall panels are the most cost effective of the concrete wall systems. Load-bearing tilt-up walls, which are designed to replace the perimeter steel columns and girders, provide the greatest cost savings.

In some areas of the United States, standard precast single-tees or double-tees are used for wall panels and are competitively priced.

Off-site precast flat panels are available in many areas of the country and use existing all-weather manufacturing facilities and local precaster experience and techniques. A high degree of quality control plus additional handling, loading and transportation requirements will usually result in higher in-place panel costs in comparison to job-built tilt-up panels.

Thermal Properties

Thermal properties of an uninsulated concrete wall system are adequate for buildings in some areas of the United States. The U-value for a 5 1/2" thick wall is .064. If additional insulation or interior finish is required, rigid or batt insulation and gypsum board can provide a U-value of 0.16 and 0.05, respectively. Some panels are offered insulated.

Fire Resistance

Concrete wall systems offer fire resistance in a range from incombustible for precast tees to 4 hour separation for a 7 1/2" thick flat panel. Low insurance premiums are assured for the owner.

Weather Resistance

The stubborn resistance of concrete to all kinds of weathering is well known. Properly constructed concrete panels will provide a lifetime of service even in the most severe climates.

Maintenance

Concrete wall systems with natural finishes and long life, all-weather sealants provide many years of maintenance free service.

Durability

Concrete wall systems are highly resistant to damage resulting from physical contact. They withstand the hard day-to day usage present in many warehouses and offer excellent security against theft and vandalism.

Sound Transmission

Concrete wall panels offer very good resistance to sound transmission. The resistance is in proportion to the wall thickness. Sound transmission class varies from 44 decibels for a 4" thick wall to 54 decibels for a 7 1/2" thick wall. These values exceed normal sound transmission requirements for most types of buildings.

Appearance Options

Concrete wall panels can be manufactured with appearance options related to specific project requirements. Where maximum economy is essential, the panels may be left with a smooth trowel or textured concrete finish.

If a special color is important, the wall panels can receive special paint or other applied finishes.

The use of exposed aggregates combined with natural and colored cement result in an unlimited number of finishes and appearance options.
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